Our Research

The Safe and Just Cleaners Study is a community-based participatory research partnership funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

The study is collecting data on domestic cleaners’ chemical exposures and other working conditions to develop safer cleaning approaches to reduce exposure for cleaners and their clients. 

Young Latinx woman cleaning glass

The Report

The Toll of Household Cleaning: Economic and Health Precarity of Immagrant Latinx Cleaners in New York

The Safe and Just Cleaners study collected survey data from 402 immigrant Latinx household cleaners in NYC and Westchester between June 2019 and February 2020.

Our survey data demonstrate that most of our study participants had income levels that placed their families below the federal poverty level. Furthermore, despite working as household cleaners for an average of 16 years, the workers in our study commonly face violations of their labor and human rights including suffering discrimination, verbal abuse, wage theft and a lack of paid sick leave. Working part-time and often without any formal contractual agreement also contributes to their vulnerability to these abuses. Household cleaners surveyed use many cleaning products that contain chemicals that are potentially damaging to their health. Moreover, the demands they face to use more toxic cleaning products combined with their inability to control which products are used may further detract from their overall health and well-being. 

Household cleaners’ situations have become even more urgent since the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study findings provide support for two proposed NY State initiatives: #FundExcludedWorkers and #Coverage4All. All workers deserve to put food on the table, pay their rent, and access healthcare.

Read the Report

Lea el informe

Insecure Low Wage Work


Work without a formal written contract

22 hours

Average work week


Average wage

Experience Financial Insecurity


Of primary wage earners’ income below poverty line


Cannot cover basic expenses without a loan

Experience Health Risks


Lack health coverage


Work with potentially toxic disinfecting products

Planned Research Activities

Work App + Exposure assessment

We are interested in identifying the cleaning and disinfecting products used by household cleaners and their cleaning and disinfection methods. We plan to deploy a smartphone application for cleaners to use after completing a cleaning job. This information will provide valuable information to know more about the chemicals cleaner’s use while cleaning homes.

More importantly, we are interested in understanding how household cleaners come into contact with cleaning and disinfecting product ingredients. In our study, we will be measuring Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs). For these chemicals, we plan to evaluate the inhalation and dermal exposures during common household cleaning tasks in the bathroom and the kitchen.  

Covid-19 Social, Behavioral, & Economic Research

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted important social disparities contributing to disproportionate disease burden.

In New York City, the Latinx population has close to twice the COVID-19 death rate compared to the white, non-Latinx population and disproportionately experiences crowded housing, inadequate access to health care, and employment in precarious jobs without the option of working from home.

Household cleaners’ situations have become even more urgent since the COVID-19 pandemic. Follow-up discussions with participants have illuminated how job loss, significant increased use of disinfecting products if working, and ongoing health access barriers have further stressed cleaners’ financial, physical and mental health. Our project is collecting additional survey data from the original 402 cleaners survey participants (pre-pandemic) to understand how immigrant Latinx household cleaners in New York have experienced the health, socioeconomic, and work impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Protect Yourself

See the educational videos we developed to inform cleaners about how to work safely during COVID-19.


We look forward to connecting with you!

Contact us to learn more about upcoming meetings. Your information is private, and only the staff of the three partner organizations of the Safe and Just Cleaners project will have access to it.